RAZÓN AUREA

03 enero 2011

Einstein y Dios


Sobre la espuria anécdota - muy difundida- del joven Einstein estudiante en Berlín:

Para refutar sencillamente este texto de autoayuda, sólo diré que Einstein nunca estudió en la nominalmente estereotípica "Universidad de Berlín", sino que hizo sus estudios de bachiller en Zurich, y no puso un pie en Berlín sino hasta 1914, cuando fue escogido miembro de la Academia Prusiana de Ciencias y director del Instituto de Física Káiser Wilhelm, lo que cierra el paso a la idea de que haya sido un novato y brillante estudiante que refutó a un profesor ateo, el villano de la comedia, a principios del "siglo 20"


Nacido en Ulm, Alemania el 14 de marzo de 1879. Antes cumplir dos años, su familia se trasladó a Munich, donde permaneció hasta 1895, período en el cual vio su vida trastornada cuando su familia se trasladó a Italia después del hundimiento de la firma eléctrica de su padre en Munich. Dejado en Munich para que terminara el año escolar, Albert decidió muy pronto abandonar el curso. y reunirse con su familia, cuando aún le faltaban tres años para terminar su educación media. El colegio no lo motivaba; era excelente en matemáticas y física pero no se interesaba por las otras materias. Así, a la edad de dieciséis años, Albert tuvo la oportunidad de conocer la gran tradición cultural italiana; admirar las obras de Miguel Ángel, que le impactara profundamente, y recorrer Italia pensando y estudiando por su cuenta. Durante este período empezó a contemplar los efectos del movimiento a la velocidad de la luz, un rompecabezas cuya resolución cambiaría para siempre la, física y la cosmología.
En Italia tuvo toda la libertad que quería y gozó por un tiempo de su vida, pero su padre lo obligó a pensar en la universidad. Regresó a Munich y luego se traslado a Zurich, en Suiza, para continuar sus estudios. En esta última ciudad no pudo ingresar a la universidad debido a no haber completado sus estudios secundarios. Alternativamente decidió incorporarse al Instituto Politécnico de Zurich, donde logró estudiar física y matemáticas con Heinrich Weber y Hermann Minkowski. Fue condiscípulo de Marcel Grossmann, que llegó a ser su gran amigo. Pero en la nación helvética, los caminos que tuvo que recorrer Albert Einstein no fueron fáciles. Llegó a conocer el hambre, la segregación académica - por no ser suizo - y también llegó a casarse con una joven matemática croata, Mileva Maric, luego de haber terminado sus estudios, en el año 1900, y de haber obtenido la nacionalidad suiza.
Con la graduación llegó el final de la asignación que le pasaba su familia, y Einstein tuvo que buscar trabajo. Sin recomendaciones -más tarde recordó que "no estaba en buenas relaciones con ninguno de sus anteriores maestros"-, no pudo encontrar ningún trabajo permanente y tuvo que arreglárselas de maestro para dictar clases particulares y/o a tiempo parcial. Después de dos años de empleos esporádicos, Einstein se volvió a beneficiar de la amistad de Marcel Grossmann, a quién había conocido en sus tiempos de estudiantes del Instituto Politécnico de Zurich, que por aquel entonces estaba enseñando matemáticas. A través de su contacto familiar, Grossmann consiguió para Einstein un puesto como experto técnico de tercera clase en la Oficina de Patentes suiza en Berna.



Albert Einstein
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
Biography
Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree.

During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance.

At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.

In the 1920's, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

Einstein's researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920's he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.
From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967
This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.
________________________________________
• Albert Einstein was formally associated with the Institute for Advanced Study located in Princeton, New Jersey.
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html



Question: Where did he receive his education?

Answer: He received his main education at the following schools:
Catholic elementary school in Munich, Germany (1885-1888)
Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich, Germany (1888-1894)
Cantonal school in Aarau, Switzerland (1895-1896)
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland (1896-1900)
Ph.D. from Zurich University, Switzerland (1905)
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-faq.html

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